Data Types in C

In C, Every variable has an affiliated data type. Every data type requires a different size of memory and has different specific operations that can be performed over it.

There are two different types of data types in the C language:

  1. Primary data types
  2. Derived data types

Primary Data Types

Primary data types are the data types that are already defined in the C language. These data types are also known as built-in or primitive data types. It is the most fundamental data type in the C language.

Examples :- int(integer), float(floating point), char(character), etc.

Derived Data Types

Derived data types are a collection of fundamental data types joined together. For example:- arraystructure, pointers, etc.

Some of the frequently used data types C are given as follows,

  • char: It stores a single character. Char data type occupies 1 byte of memory in almost all C compilers.
  • int: An int data type is used to store an integer.
  • float: float data type is used to store decimal numbers also known as floating numbers. It stores decimal numbers with single precision.
  • double: double data type also stores decimal numbers like a float but with double precision.
  • Array: A collection of primary data types like int, float, and char.
  • struct: Structure allows you to combine different data types together.
  • long: It stores integers with more range. It occupies 4 bits on a 32-bit compiler

Different data types have different memory allocations. These memory allocations are compiler-dependent. A list of ranges of some data types along with the format specifier and memory allocation on 32-bit GCC compiler is given as follows,

C Data TypeSize (bytes)RangeFormat Specifier
short int2-32,768 to 32,767%hd
unsigned short int20 to 65,535%hu
unsigned int40 to 4,294,967,295%u
int4-2,147,483,648 to 2,147,483,647%d
long int4-2,147,483,648 to 2,147,483,647%ld
unsigned long int40 to 4,294,967,295%lu
long long int8-(2^63) to (2^63)-1%lld
unsigned long long int80 to 18,446,744,073,709,551,615%llu
signed char1-128 to 127%c
unsigned char10 to 255%c
float4 1.2E-38 to 3.4E+38%f
double8 2.3E-308 to 1.7E+308%lf

Example

#include <stdio.h>

int main() {
  int a = 4;
  char c = 'd';
  printf("%d\n", a);
  printf("%c", c);
  return 0;
}

Output:

4
d

sizeof()  Operator

sizeof() operator can be used to compute the size of any data type in C.

Example

#include <stdio.h>

int main() {
  int b = 5;
  printf("Size of a : %d\n", sizeof(b));
  printf("Size of data type, int : %d\n", sizeof(int));
  printf("Size of data type, char : %d\n", sizeof(char));
  printf("Size of data type, float : %d\n", sizeof(float));
  printf("Size of data type, double : %d\n", sizeof(double));
  return 0;
}

Output:

Size of a : 4
Size of data type, int : 4
Size of data type, char : 1
Size of data type, float : 4
Size of data type, double : 8

void Data Type

void means null. The null data type is used to specify a function that returns no value.

Example

#include <stdio.h>

void main() {
  printf("This function returns no value");
}

Output:

This function returns no value
Do you know?
Data Types in C This article is contribute by Hitesh Marwaha If you want share your knowledge on Study4Geeks then go to login section.